9 May 2012
Import and Export Trade Industry in Hong Kong
- Hong Kong is the world's 10th largest trading economy. In 2011, Hong Kong’s total merchandise trade increased by 11% to US$910.5 billion.
- Hong Kong is also handling an increasing amount of offshore trade. The Hong Kong government estimates that the sales value of offshore trade (includes both “merchanting” and “merchandising for offshore transactions”) in 2010 amounted to HK$3,886.3 billion, up 32.6% over 2009. In comparison, the value of re-exports was HK$2,961.5 billion in 2010, up 22.8% over 2009. The amount of offshore trade has surpassed the value of Hong Kong's re-exports.
- As at December 2011, 495,847 people were employed in the import and export trade sector, which had 102,273 establishments. In 2010, the sector accounted for 19.8% of Hong Kong’s GDP.
- Hong Kong has been handling a significant portion of the Chinese mainland's expanding external trade. In 2011, about 14% of the Chinese mainland's exports (US$258 billion) and 13% of imports (US$220 billion) were handled via Hong Kong and 61.6% of Hong Kong's total re-exports were originated from the Chinese mainland.
Import and Export Trade
Number of Establishments
Source: Quarterly Report of Employment and Vacancies Statistics, Census and Statistics Department
Export of Merchanting and Trade-related Services
Year-on-year (YoY) growth
Contribution to Services Exports
Sources: Gross Domestic Product (Quarterly), Census and Statistics Department
Major Export Markets of Merchanting and Trade-related Services (US$ million)
Sources: Report on Hong Kong Trade in Services Statistics, Census and Statistics Department
Range of Services
Hong Kong's import and export trading firms are active in sourcing various types of goods, including raw materials, machinery and parts, and a wide range of consumer goods. There are three main types of sourcing activities: (1) sourcing goods produced in Hong Kong; (2) sourcing goods from around the region for re-exports; and (3) sourcing goods from one country to be shipped directly to a third country without touching Hong Kong ground.
The import business of Hong Kong trading firms is mainly generated by the distributing capabilities under the identity of agents or dealers. These trading firms usually specialise in one area of products and represent one or more foreign brands. Their trading map usually encompasses Hong Kong, the Chinese mainland (or certain parts of it) or other Asian countries.
Due to the development of trade supporting services on the Chinese mainland, trading firms increasingly source goods offshore for sales in international markets. Some of these goods are transhipped via Hong Kong, or shipped directly without touching Hong Kong ground. Such trade, known as offshore trade, is not reflected in Hong Kong's trade statistics. According to the Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong's sales value of offshore trade (includes both “merchanting” and “merchandising for offshore transactions”) in 2010 amounted to HK$3,886.3 billion, up 32.6% over 2009. In comparison, the value of re-exports was HK$2,961.5 billion in 2010, up 22.8% over 2009. The amount of offshore trade has surpassed the value of Hong Kong's re-exports.
Hong Kong's import and export trading firms are typically small, employing around 6 persons on average. There were 102,273 import and export trading firms in Hong Kong in 2011, with less than 300 of these firms having more than 100 employees. There are three broad categories of import and export trading firms:
- Left hand-right hand traders: these refer to trading firms which match sellers and buyers without adding any significant value to the process. These firms are characterised by the conduct of a straight-forward sourcing operation, usually identifying goods produced on the mainland or Hong Kong and shipping them to overseas markets. These firms rely on their specialist knowledge of the sources of products in the region and the low costs of their supplies as their main competitive advantages.
- Traders with some value added services: Many firms now source raw materials for their suppliers and provide finance for these materials. They often use letters of credit from their customers as a guarantee for raising finance for their purchase orders. Other firms develop a sub-contractor relationship with a number of factories in which they exert significant control over the management of production, including quality control.
- Traders with sophisticated value-added services: In certain cases exporting firms have added value to their traditional activity to such an extent that it may be difficult to retain the label of being exporters. For example, some firms have become designer and manufacturer of components for their supplier factories to produce finished goods, which the firms subsequently export. These firms add value mostly from their design team and their competitive edge comes from their ability to design products which sell well in the target markets.
The business environment for Hong Kong's trading firms is becoming more challenging amid the growing trend toward direct dealing between customers and manufacturers, known as “trade disintermediation”. In 2010, the rate of gross margin1 of merchanting was 6.1%, down from 6.9% and 8.6% in 2009 and 2004 respectively, illustrating the squeeze in margin. In response to trade disintermediation, Hong Kong traders now provide more value-added service in addition to finding more competitive sources of supplies. For example, Hong Kong traders help their overseas clients inspect the goods produced by the manufacturers to ensure they are up to standard, and monitor production schedules to meet delivery. Hong Kong traders can also help overseas buyers coordinate production when the buyers have a sudden surge in orders and quick turnaround is needed.
In the same period, the commission rate of merchandising2 for offshore transactions was 5.5% (2004: 3.6%; 2009: 5.5%), while the rate of re-export margin was 15.9% (2004: 17.3%; 2009: 16.9%).
The operations of small and big trading firms are quite different. Smaller firms are usually strong in introducing foreign products to the mainland market. In most cases, they specialise in one area, such as medical equipment, and represent some foreign brands as their agents or distributors. Bigger trading firms are usually strong in sourcing products from the region. They usually have regional or even global sourcing networks and do not specialise on a particular type of product.
Hong Kong's import and export trading sector exports its services mainly in the form of offshore buying and selling of goods. Given Hong Kong's proximity and the relocation of Hong Kong's manufacturing bases to the mainland, particularly the Pearl River Delta, the Chinese mainland is a major source of offshore trading activities. As Hong Kong manufacturers are diversifying their production activities to other low-cost countries, the offshore trading pattern is expected to reflect the move.
In 2011, Hong Kong earned US$35.2 billion from exporting merchanting and trade-related services, accounting for 29.2% of total services exports. The Chinese mainland accounted for 21.2% of Hong Kong's exports of merchanting and trade-related services in 2010.
Industry Development and Market Outlook
- Despite the gloomy global economy, Hong Kong’s total merchandise trade increased 11% to US$910.5 billion in 2011, helped to an extent by the economic gravity shifted from West to East. This followed a strong trade performance in 2010, recording a surge of 23.9% to US$820 billion. Many other countries in Asia also showed remarkable growth in exports and imports in both 2010 and 2011.
- In Jun 2010, the Chinese mainland and Taiwan signed a preferential agreement, called the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA), which bodes well for continued growth in trade within the Greater China region. According to ECFA, the governments are committed to removing tariffs within two years on 539 Taiwan export items as well as 267 mainland export items to Taiwan.
- Further, in recent years, Asia has become a more integrated market, thanks also to the various free trade agreements (FTAs) signed in the region. In particular, the product trade arrangements under the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) pact, which commenced in 2005 with scheduled tariff elimination completed in 2010, have contributed to higher intra-Asian trade.
- The continued growth in intra-Asia trade can be reflected by its faster growth than extra-Asia trade. For the five years to 2010, the average annual growth of Asia’s exports to within the region was 12%, compared to the respective export growth of 10% and 6% to Europe and North America.
- In addition, over the past few years, there has been an increase in companies in developed economies treating Asia as a market instead of a pure production base. Based on WTO statistics, North America’s exports to Asia expanded 27% in 2010, surpassing 13% in respect of its exports to Europe for the same year. Similarly, Europe’s exports to Asia expanded 22% in 2010, surpassing 13% in respect of its exports to North America for the same year.
The Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement between Hong Kong and the Mainland (CEPA)
According to the "Measures for the Administration on Foreign investment in Commercial Fields", which became effective in December 2004, foreign-owned enterprises are allowed to enter the mainland's market to engage in trading business, not being subject to any minimum annual trading value. However, foreign-owned enterprises need to meet the regulations on the minimum registered capital (as stipulated in the related rules of Company Law3), registered capital and investment value.
Under CEPA, Hong Kong service suppliers (HKSS) can provide commission agents' services in respect of chemical fertilisers, processed oil and crude oil, and wholesale trade services and retailing services in respect of chemical fertilisers.
In addition, for the same HKSS which opens more than 30 stores accumulatively on the mainland, if the commodities for sale include pharmaceutical products, pesticides, mulching films, chemical fertilisers, vegetable oil, edible sugar and cotton, and the above commodities are of different brands and come from different suppliers, the Hong Kong service supplier is allowed to operate on a wholly-owned basis. Currently, a single foreign enterprise under the same condition can only hold a maximum 49% share in the business.
1 “Rate of gross margin” refers to the gross margin from merchanting expressed as a percentage of the sales value of goods involved, while “commission rate” is the commission from merchandising for offshore transactions expressed as a percentage of the sales value of goods involved. “Rate of re-export margin” is defined as the re-export margin expressed as a percentage of the value of re-exports.
2 The difference between “merchanting” and “merchandising” is that, an establishment engaged in “merchanting” takes ownership of the goods involved, whereas one engaged in merchandising transactions does not take ownership of the goods involved.